More on Genre

  • genre is a social act
  • sometimes you have to simplify things when talking about genres because if not, things can get messy
  • contain preconceptions
    •  sonnets=love poems
  • stability within genres and they change depending on the consumer
  • genres perform something
  • Dean’s Article:
    • aren’t classifiable
    • things can be classified as multiple things
  • forms don’t fit genres and genres don’t fit forms
  • Social: we create them as humans, depending on who you are talking about you have different genre
    • branches off into the discourse communities/cultural
  • Rhetorical: blocked by rhetorical questions but what is really meant is rhetorical= purposeful
    • if it wasn’t rhetorical then everything for example in music would sound the same
    • so artist choose specific beats, rhythms, etc. for a purpose
    • stable/flexible: greeting card, you choose a specific greeting depending on what was being celebrated so you have a foundation ex. birthday, baby shower, etc.. then you can choose if you want a funny, sarcastic card
  • Historical:
    • concept of antecedent genres> procreative sense, they aren’t just made up, something came before it
    • nothing new
  • Cultural: macro-level of context
    • the culture of this class is different from that of my earth science class
    • we have certain genres that operate by certain communities
      • someone in sciences: lab reports
    • overlaps with social
  • Situated: micro-level of context
    • ex: parking ticket
      • flyers on your car in campus parking lot would mostly be school related.
    • appearing in 2 situations that change the way you experience that genre
      • physical situations that we expect them to be in, and then we can perceive them
      • wedding slideshow
  • Ideological: value systems
    • ex: 5 paragraph essay is a genre
    • action for a person

The Complexity of Genre

Dean’s “Genre Theory” was very interesting and it revealed information I had not ever thought of before about genres. I found information within this article that I had already heard/learned  about, while I also came across information that I hadn’t heard of before which left me wondering. Dean expresses new compelling ideas about genre that give the reader a better insight on what more genres are.

At the beginning of this article, Dean explains the complexity of defining the word ‘genre.’ Before reading this article I never thought the definition of genre being anything other than something we do to categorize or sort something. For example, we have music in genres like country, rap, pop, etc.  So it kind of made me start to wonder what more a genre could be. Then Dean explains that genres “are defined more by situation than form……are more an explanation of social interaction than a  classification system.” However, before reading this I never thought of them genres being more than a “classification system” but I think I understand what Dean means.

Dean goes on to explain that genres are “responses of social interactions/ situations” but I became a little confused as to what she meant by this. I’m wondering if what she meant was that genres take form or are defined by social interactions/situations? I’m not sure what she even means by social interactions/situations. Then I got to “Genres Are Not Fixed” and it started to make more sense as to what she was referring to. She explains that genres are shaped by various influences at different times. When Dean stated genres had various influences it reminded me of movies and how movies can be categorized into different genres because they fit multiple characteristics. Later I found myself learning about the social aspect of genres and how they work within social settings. What she meant was that social situations shape our genres, she gave the example of how you wouldn’t submit a poem when a resume is expected. Overall, I think I better comprehend what she meant by saying that genres were social.

The historical aspect of genres was a little patchy for me. I didn’t understand how genres fit with historical aspects. I understood what she meant when she said that when genres change they depend on previous genres to develop but I didn’t understand what would cause them to change. Dean explains that they change but I had always thought that if they changed then you would simply add another genre, which confuses me.

Ultimately, I found myself delving into this article because it seemed very interesting to know that genres are more than what I thought I knew. Genres aren’t just used in literacy but through different aspects. We don’t have to only use them to categorize things like books, movies, or music, however we use genres in everyday life without even realizing it.

Web Text Contribution/ Class notes

What are we doing: Using our contribution statements and creating a platform to express this through however we chose to do it.

  • make sure to know your audience- what age group?
  • page numbers or no page numbers?
  • Colors that will appeal to a specific audience
  • Consideration of small details will come into play when composing
  • Images…
  • editing is very important
  • creating own media/images? To make it more of your own!
    • Video, mp3, audio
  • each group member should “contribute”
  • work should stand outside this class, no “I wrote this for my class” type of junk
  • GRADING: individually graded, peer evaluations, and engagement during class

How does the Criminal Justice System shape society?

Previous research has shown that celebrities, famous athletes, and members of the judicial system have a type of immunity when it comes to the law and punishment for wrongful actions. The law is “innocent until proven guilty” however examples from different cases show that in reality it is the opposite, that people are actually thought of as “guilty until proven innocent.” Since this law we’ve created: “guilty until proven innocent”  has been recorded case after case, we have found that those people in society that are held to higher standards and sometimes have a bit more leeway than the average American citizen. For example in the past, news on President JFK having “sexual relations” with a woman other than his wife. It was all over the media and all of America knew about it; but nothing was done. Regardless of his infidelity, we as Americans still idolized him and looked up to him as a role model. Although this is only one small example, it can still say a lot about American society. I think this example shows reflection on our society and how we admire and venerate the prominent people and kind of put them high on a pedestal even though they make just as many mistakes as the average citizen.

Picking up the Breadcrumbs

  • Criminology, psychology, sociology, political science- humanities
    • Look at these topics and how they connect to being truly free or the theory of still being guilty after being innocent
  • “In many cases state laws prevent even the publication of an accuser’s name, thus making the defender’s job to prove his innocence even more difficult.”
    • This relates to my question of evidence being enough to convict people, even if they are innocent finding proof will be hard. If they have to prevent the publication of an accuser’s name, then how is that fair for the other person. In this I question how our right to a “fair” trial is really fair.

  • First the immemorial rule that no man could be tried twice for the same crime was abrogated in the wake of the Stephen Lawrence case and the subsequent, egregious Macpherson Report, a low point in the extensive history of British official moral cowardice.

This really hits home with my question on evidence, this article talks about how you cannot be tried twice but I don’t understand why we should even have to ask for a second trial because there should be enough evidence during the first trial that the suspect should be tried correctly.

  • In the case of Stephen Lawrence, the police didn’t have evidence to being with except for a letter that someone had left in the family’s telephone box. “Enough” evidence was found to convict a suspect yet the suspect was released because of “insufficient evidence,” only to find out after 10 years the suspect was truly guilty.

  • “But Healy was never convicted of a crime. He was merely named an “unindicted co-conspirator,” with no chance to clear his name except by initiating some kind of lawsuit against the government, which has much more money to spend on lawyers than he does.

The innocence mantra has been gradually eroded by compromises such as these, but there are many more instances that could be cited.”

  • People are innocent yet they cannot clear their name from those convictions because it is hard but why?
  • How sad and how contrary to our whole judicial philosophy is the need for the accused to prove his innocence instead of the burden being placed on the prosecution to prove his guilt.

  • Powerful statement that I thought related to evidence and how this statement proves that there isn’t enough evidence to convict someone even when we think there is
  • A recurring theme in the White Paper on Crime consultation process has been the relationship between the criminal justice system and the community it serves. It is widely accepted that combating crime requires the input of ordinary citizens and communities. At the same time, the public rightly has expectations of the criminal justice system and its general capacity to protect communities and to deal with offenders. The commitment in the Programme for Government to enact legislation to strengthen the rights of victims of crime and their families is particularly relevant in this regard.

Key overall components of a fair and credible system are:

  • Effectiveness in detecting, deterring and punishing offending behavior
  • Fairness to all involved including victims, witnesses and accused
  • Efficiency in the use of time and resources
  • Transparency and prompt service delivery

Media and Awareness of Crime

  • media naturally plays an important role in shaping people’s awareness of crime and criminal justice issues
  • It is often suggested that this can distort people’s perception of crime
  • This can create the impression that the incidence of these events or the risk of becoming a victim is higher than might actually be the case
  • It is also suggested that by emphasizing and overstating some types of serious crime, crime coverage fuels punitive tendencies in the debate on crime.
  • A further criticism is that some coverage may reinforce the stigmatization of certain groups or communities.
  • It may be that modern media produces more frequent, more graphic and visual, and hence more emotive, representations of crime

  • I found this information to take me into “the rabbit hole.” At first I didn’t think this really had anything to do with our inquiry question but now I see that many things influence whether someone is judged as innocent or guilty, by the public.
  • Once charges are published and sensationalized, however, the individual is considered “guilty” by many readers and has his or her reputation tarnished. This practice also takes its toll on related family members

  • This article related very much to my inquiry question about people who are set free really being set free or do people still believe they will always be guilty.
  • “The media’s the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s power. Because they control the minds of the masses.”

— Malcolm X

the media give all the details of the crime in such a way that for most people there is no other conclusion than the person is guilty.

They are usually huffy about any criticism since everyone knows that when someone is arrested, they are guilty.

The jury pool is contaminated by the media framing the story from the prosecution’s point of view

Further, as some of us remember, there have been several seemingly iron-clad cases against citizens that subsequently turned out to be incorrect. What is remembered is that the person was handcuffed and perp-walked into the jail on nighttime television. It is rarely remembered that the person was really innocent.

No exculpatory evidence is mentioned

  • This article questions the influence on media and how that influences our opinions on a suspect from the start. We make judgments that affect the person for the rest of their life.
  • Call for submission on exculpatory evidence
    • Prior to this decision, several federal circuit courts3 and district courts4 recognized a duty on the part of the prosecutor to introduce exculpatory evidence

  • Exculpatory evidence seems biased in a way because if the suspect doesn’t find evidence to prove his innocence than their innocence is questionable. This doesn’t seem fair because if they are truly innocent then there probably won’t be much evidence to bring to the table, unless they have really good alibis to prove their innocence. I question this is “fair” for everyone.


  • An example of reflection could be a song because the artist is telling a story of the past and showing growth→ ex. “Since U Been Gone” by Kelly Clarkson
  • Music is a form of writing that can express emotions from the past in 3 minutes and is a great example of reflection
  • Relating reflection to food:
    • Make it, with all the ingredients and then you realize it wasn’t as good as you thought it wasn’t going to be. Then you analyze what you could have done differently.
    • Throw a paper together before the day it is due, but you have big words or in-text citation that make it look like the paper is a great one. Then you get the bad grade and realize it sucked. When you analyze, what you should do to make it better.
    • “Your reflection forms evidence of your experience.”
  • Movies:
    • we analyze the facts and concrete things about the movie
  • The moment is what had an impact on you, so don’t summarize.
  • Look out how you thinking process is now than it was before
  • We are always reflecting on things in life and we don’t even notice it
  • Be selective, reflect deeply
  • Get other perspectives from your moment
  • collect evidence, notes

Notes on Mid-term

Reflection Midterm Paper Notes:

  • Have a moment on that specific moment in our reflection paper?
  • There should a motive, for example how this paper caused me to be frustrated and be confused
  • Have you realized yet?
  • Things we shouldn’t write about: no narrative, no blanket statements, and write about something that has to do with writing
  • Have a bigger picture
  • Yet still very confused as to what to write about because maybe I haven’t realized I’ve had that moment yet